Articles on Creation, Evolution, and the Age of the Earth

Below are a few, and by a few I mean a lot, of links to various articles and blog posts that I have found helpful thinking through creation, evolution, and the age of the earth  I do not agree with everything said in these links, but have found what has been said very informative and has opened my eyes to the differing views on Genesis.  I have linked several BioLogos articles.  I definitely disagree with their position of not holding to a historical Adam, but I appreciate the platform that they have created for discussing these issues.

Biblical Reasons to Doubt the Creation Days Were 24-Hour Periods

by Justin Taylor at The Gospel Coalition

“It is commonly suggested that this is such a “plain reading” of Scripture—so obviously clear and true—that the only people who doubt it are those who have been influenced by Charles Darwin and his neo-Darwinian successors. The claim is often made that no one doubted this reading until after Darwin. (This just isn’t true—from ancient rabbis to Augustine to B. B. Warfield—but that’s another post for another time.)”

Does Old Earth Creationism Undermine the Gospel? A Response to Kevin Bauder

by Gavin Ortlund at Soliloquium

“Some people feel very nervous about scientific discovery ever changing our theology. To be sure, there is a valid concern here about Scripture being our final authority. But the church’s widespread condemnation of Copernicus in the 16th century provides a poignant reminder that we can learn from science, and that it is Scripture that is infallible, not our interpretations.”

Why the Framework View of Genesis 1?

by Gavin Ortlund at Soliloquium

“Though very far from being irrelevant to questions of science, I think Genesis 1:1-2:3 is far more concerned with questions about post-Exodus, pre-Canaan Israel and her covenantal relationship with the Lord. The word “covenant” must be constantly kept only a short distance away to read Genesis 1 well. The main point is: “you know the One who just led you out of Egypt and gave you His law? He is no tribal deity! He is the Creator God of the whole world.” When the text is read on its own terms, within its own matrix of thought and in light of its own purposes, the sequential reading (especiallly the 24-hour day version) becomes much less obviously the “plain reading” of the text, and, in my opinion, a much more difficult, wooden way to read the text.’

The Age of the Universe and Genesis 1 – A Reformed Approach to Science and Scripture

by Keith Malathion at Ligonier

“The debate over the age of the universe and the days of Genesis has also played out as numerous books have been written in the last century and a half by Reformed theologians presenting evidence for one view or another.iii The Calendar Day view was held by Reformed theologians such as Robert L. Dabney and Louis Berkhof.iv It has recently been defended by Douglas F. Kelly, James B. Jordan, Joseph Pipa, and David Hall.v The Day Age view was held by Reformed theologians such as Charles Hodge, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, and E. J. More recently, this view has been defended by Francis Schaeffer and James Montgomery Boice.vii The Framework view has been defended by Reformed theologians such as Meredith Kline, Mark Futato, and Henri Blocher.viii A version of the Analogical Day view was held by William G. T. Shedd.ix More recently, this view has been defended by Reformed theologians such as C. John Collins and W. Robert Godfrey.x In short, Reformed Christians are still sorting through the issues.”

6 Meanings of the Word ‘Evolution’

by Justin Taylor at The Gospel Coalition

“But let’s return to the “idea of evolution.” Many Christians who enter the fray point out that “evolution” is an ambiguous term, and that we can distinguish between “macro-evolution” (grand-scale body-plan transformation of species) and “micro-evolution” (observable small-scale changes within a population over succeeding generations).”

Furthering the Dialogue on Creation: Some Thoughts on Doug Wilson’s Piece

by Gavin Ortlund at Soliloquium

“I am sure Wilson knows that you can reject a 24-day, sequential reading of Genesis 1 without affirming a strictly evolutionary account of the origins of life generally or humanity specifically. There is a huge swath of evangelicalism that goes this route, as well as a number of heavy-hitting modern theologians like Warfield and Hodge and McCosh at Old Princeton. But there is a tendency among young-earth creationists to obscure from visibility this middle-ground, intermediate position, such that the interpretative choice looks more starkly like a stand off between Ken Ham and Charles Darwin. (There is a powerful rhetorical thrust to this appeal: which do you believe, God’s thought’s or man’s thoughts?)”

Why a Local Flood?

by Gavin Ortlund at Soliloquium

“But sometimes what seems initially obvious can actually become more and more implausible upon closer inspection. I believe that is the case with the notion of a global flood. In fact, here I want to suggest that both (1) the language of the biblical account and (2) the difficulties involved positing a global flood actually favor the idea that Noah’s flood was local (though bear in mind that “local” does not mean “small”). My interest here is not so much to convert people to a local flood view as much as to create some space for both views as interpretative options within the church, and to try to soften and nuance our rhetoric in our dialogue with those outside the church. Even more important than getting it right, in my opinion, is that we deal with the issue in a way that does not detract from our unity and mission.”

Creation, Evolution, and Christian Laypeople

by Tim Keller at BioLogos

“The six-part series by Dr. Keller considers three main clusters of questions lay people raise with their pastors when introduced to the teaching that biological evolution and biblical orthodoxy can be compatible. As a pastor and evangelist, Keller takes these concerns seriously and offers suggestions for addressing them without requiring believers to adopt a particular view or accept a definitive answer.”

The Consensus – An Interlude

by Ian Clary at City of God

“In fact, there has been no consensus on the issue of creation days at all in church history. I have one more post about this, that will account for the rise of young earth creationism in evangelical circles, but before I post it, I wanted to share a number of quotes by noteworthy Reformed and conservative evangelical theologians on this issue. You’ll notice that I include voices from past and present, and across disciplines–so you’ve got historians, biblical theologians (Old and New Testament), and systematicians. You also see the various views represented, like the framework, day age, day of unspecified duration, and analogical days view. It’s not exhaustive, there are a number of theologians who have written major works on this, that I’ve left out. I title this as a consensus, and do so facetiously for obvious reasons. Be warned, this post is very long!”

Spurgeon, Pink, and Terrestrial Antiquity

by Ian Clary at City of God

“Can any man tell me when the beginning was? Years ago we thought the beginning of this world was when Adam came upon it; but we have discovered that thousands of years before that God was preparing chaotic matter to make it a fit abode for man, putting races of creatures upon it, who might die and leave behind the marks of his handiwork and marvelous skill, before he tried his hand on man.”

Views of Creation: Theistic Evolution

by James Montgomery Boice at LifeCoach4God

“What are we to think of theistic evolution? Positively, we may say that it has two important points in its favor. First, truth is truth wherever it is found. So if evolution is true, as evolutionists certainly believe, and if the Bible is also true, then something like the view of the theistic evolutionists must be reality. Again, this does not mean that evolution is true. But it does mean that we must at least ask whether it is true or not, and if it is true, we must learn from it. We must remember at this point that many theories of science were once declared to be anti-Christian but are now held by Christians and non-Christians alike with no apparent ill effects to Christianity.”

How Have Christians Responded to Darwin’s ‘Origin of the Species’?

at BioLogos

?Many believe that before Darwin published The Origin of Species in 1859, Christians as a whole maintained an entirely literal, six-day interpretation of Genesis in which the earth was only a few thousand years old. In fact, however, the idea of an old earth had already become increasingly popular among Christians throughout the half century leading up to The Origin of Species.1

Another misconception is that the arrival of Darwin’s theory led the scientific and theological communities to immediately take up positions opposing each other. But history reveals that one of the earliest supporters of evolutionary theory in the American scientific community was a devout Christian botanist named Asa Gray. And among theologians, BB Warfield—an architect of the contemporary evangelical understanding of biblical inerrancy—believed that certain forms of evolution were also compatible with a high view of Scripture.”

Because It had not Rained

by Meredith G. Kline

“The literary character of Gen. 1:1-2:5 prepares the exegete for the presence there of a stronger figurative element than might be expected were it ordinary prose. This passage is not, of course, full-fledged Semitic poetry. But neither is it ordinary prose. Its structure is strophic and throughout the strophes many refrains echo and re-echo. Instances occur of other poetic features like parallelism (1:27; 2:2) and alliteration (1:1). In general then the literary treatment of the creation in Genesis 1 is in the epic tradition.”

B. B. Warfield, Biblical Inerrancy, and Evolution

by Mark Noll at BioLogos

“In these works, Warfield repeatedly insisted on distinguishing among Darwin as a person, Darwinism as a cosmological theory, and evolution as a series of explanations about natural development. Of key importance was his willingness throughout a long career to accept the possibility (or even the probability) of evolution, while also denying Darwinism as a cosmological theory. In his mind, these discriminations were necessary in order properly to evaluate both the results of disciplined observation (science) and large-scale conclusions drawn from that science (theology or cosmology). Crucially, a Christological perspective was prominent when he applied these discriminations to evolutionary theory.”

Evolution and our Theological Traditions: Calvinism – Blog Series

by Peter Enns at BioLogos

“In this exhaustive series, Pete Enns begins with this question concerning the science and faith discussion among the Evangelical community: “How do our various theological traditions contribute to or hinder the dialogue between evolution and our Christian faith?” It all stems from the specific way in which one interprets Scripture. Though all traditions have an important voice in the matter, Enns specifically looks at that of Calvinism’s due to its wide impact on Evangelical thought. He explains John Calvin’s unique approach to interpreting Scripture and then demonstrates its impact on the conversation between Christianity and science. Furthermore, he looks at how Old Princeton thought has influenced Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism. He also explores ways in which these interpretative methods have been applied. He then highlights the hermeneutical strategies of the theologian B.B. Warfield, who took seriously the incarnation and thus the “human side” to Scriptures. In light of these strategies and interpretational tools provided by Calvinistic thought, he views the creation stories of Genesis in their historical, ancient Near Eastern context.”

If God Made the World, Why is it So Old?

by Gavin Ortlund at Soliloquim

“I’ve also been helped by considering the size of the universe. Once again, the fact that we are a tiny dot in an endless ocean of stars doesn’t prove an empty view of space, but it can sure feel counter-intuitive to an anthropocentric worldview. Accepting our tiny place on the outskirts of the universe was, in fact, so counter-intuitive that it took the Christian church a long time to accept. Again, most artists don’t put the most important object on their painting in a tiny infinitesimal dot in the corner, and most architects don’t purchase several million acres in order to build a tiny house on the edge of it.”






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